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2019年3月新聞熱詞彙總
時間:2019-04-03 14:48     來源:中國日報     本站編輯作者:admin
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兩會 two sessions

今年全國兩會期間,習近平主席六次下團組強調了這幾件事。

關鍵詞:文化自信 cultural confidence
時間:3月4日
地點:看望全國政協十三屆二次會議的文化藝術界、社會科學界委員

“習”語回顧:
Writers, artists and theorists should strengthen cultural confidence, serve the people with fine works, and guide the public with high moral standards.
文學家、藝術家、理論家要堅定文化自信、以精品奉獻人民、用明德引領風尚。

A country, or a nation, cannot be devoid of soul. The mission of workers in culture, literature, art and philosophy and social sciences is to nurture the root and soul of the nation.
一個國家、一個民族不能沒有靈魂。文化文藝工作、哲學社會科學工作就屬于培根鑄魂的工作。

Cultural, literary and artistic workers should participate in practices, carefully observe people's lives and express people's aspirations.
文化文藝工作者要走進實踐深處,觀照人民生活,表達人民心聲。

The people should be provided with quality products, all valuable and meaningful literary and artistic works and academic research should reflect reality and be conducive to solving real problems and answering real questions.
要堅持以精品奉獻人民。一切有價值、有意義的文藝創作和學術研究,都應該反映現實,都應該有利于解決現實問題、回答現實課題。

All practitioners in culture, literature, art, philosophy and social sciences shoulder the important tasks of enlightening thoughts, nurturing sentiments and warming hearts. They should set an example for society with lofty aspirations, good morals and noble sentiments.
文化文藝工作者、哲學社會科學工作者都肩負著啓迪思想、陶冶情操、溫潤心靈的重要職責,大家理應以高遠志向、良好品德、高尚情操爲社會作出表率。


關鍵詞:生態文明 ecological civilization
時間:3月5日
地點:十三屆全國人大二次會議內蒙古代表團

“習”語回顧:
Building Inner Mongolia into an important shield for ecological security in northern China is a strategic position set with full consideration of the country's overall development and a major responsibility the region must shoulder.
把內蒙古建成我國北方重要生態安全屏障,是立足全國發展大局確立的戰略定位,也是內蒙古必須自覺擔負起的重大責任。

Fundamentally speaking, environmental protection and economic development are closely integrated and complement each other.
保護生態環境和發展經濟從根本上講是有機統一、相輔相成的。

In the Chinese economy's transition from the phase of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development, pollution control and environmental governance are two major tasks that must be accomplished.
在我國經濟由高速增長階段轉向高質量發展階段過程中,汙染防治和環境治理是需要跨越的一道重要關口。

The country should explore a new path of high-quality development that prioritizes ecology and highlights green development.
要探索以生態優先、綠色發展爲導向的高質量發展新路子。


關鍵詞:脫貧攻堅 fight against poverty
時間:3月7日
地點:十三屆全國人大二次會議甘肅代表團

“習”語回顧:
We need perseverance in the fight against poverty as there are only two years left for the country to meet its goal of eradicating extreme poverty by 2020. There should be no retreat until a complete victory is won.
現在距離2020年完成脫貧攻堅目標任務只有兩年時間,正是最吃勁的時候,必須堅持不懈做好工作,不獲全勝、決不收兵。

The practices of formalities for formalities' sake and bureaucratism hamper the effective advancement of poverty reduction. We should keep a firm hand in rectifying malpractices in poverty relief.
要整治問題不手軟。脫貧攻堅工作中存在的形式主義、官僚主義現象,影響脫貧攻堅有效推進。

More efforts are needed to redress undesirable conduct of officials in a timely manner, as well as special campaigns to target corruption and bad conduct in poverty reduction.
要及時糾正脫貧攻堅中反映的幹部作風問題,深化扶貧領域腐敗和作風問題專項治理。


關鍵詞:鄉村振興戰略 rural revitalization strategy
時間:3月8日
地點:十三屆全國人大二次會議河南代表團

“習”語回顧:
Efforts should be made to promote the supply-side structural reform in the agricultural sector to achieve food security while building a modern and efficient agriculture.
要推進農業供給側結構性改革。實現糧食安全和現代高效農業相統一。

Measures should be taken to promote two-way flow and equal exchange of factors, including human resources, lands and capital, between urban and rural areas.
推動人才、土地、資本等要素在城鄉間雙向流動和平等交換。

Implementation of the rural revitalization strategy and seeking progress in work related with agriculture, rural areas and farmers should be taken into consideration and promoted in the overall economic and social development.
要把實施鄉村振興戰略、做好“三農”工作放在經濟社會發展全局中統籌謀劃和推進。


關鍵詞:創新發展 innovative development
時間:3月10日
地點:十三屆全國人大二次會議福建代表團

“習”語回顧:
China should seek momentum from reform and opening up, unleash to the maximum the whole society's power for innovation, entrepreneurship and creativity, and keep improving the country's influence and competitiveness in a world that is undergoing profound changes.
要向改革開放要動力,最大限度釋放全社會創新創業創造動能,不斷增強我國在世界大變局中的影響力、競爭力。

We should create favorable conditions for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and young people, and establish an acceleration mechanism for high-tech companies.
要爲中小企業、年輕人發展提供有利條件,爲高技術企業成長建立加速機制。
The government should help private companies achieve innovative development and build up a team of entrepreneurs with a pioneering spirit, forward-looking vision and global insight with respect to market competition.
幫助民營企業實現創新發展,在市場競爭中打造一支有開拓精神、前瞻眼光、國際視野的企業家隊伍。

Fujian must leverage the combined strengths of the special economic zone, pilot free trade zone, comprehensive experimental zone and the core zone of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and keep exploring new approaches.
福建要發揮經濟特區、自由貿易試驗區、綜合實驗區、21世紀海上絲綢之路核心區等多區疊加優勢,不斷探索新路。

The two sides of the Taiwan Strait should enhance economic and trade cooperation, infrastructure connectivity, energy and resource exchanges, and shared industry standards.
兩岸要應通盡通,提升經貿合作暢通、基礎設施聯通、能源資源互通、行業標准共通。


關鍵詞:軍隊建設 military development
時間:3月12日
地點:十三屆全國人大二次會議解放軍和武警部隊代表團

“習”語回顧:
The entire armed forces must clearly understand the importance and urgency of implementing the 13th Five-Year Plan for military development, firm up their resolve, intensify the sense of mission, forge ahead with a pioneering spirit, and go all out to carry out the plan so as to ensure that the set targets and tasks are fulfilled as scheduled.
全軍要認清落實“十三五”規劃的重要性和緊迫性,堅定決心意志,強化使命擔當,銳意開拓進取,全力以赴打好規劃落實攻堅戰,確保如期完成既定目標任務。

The whole army should adhere to the guidance of the thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, fully implement the Party's thinking on strengthening the military for the new era and the military strategy for new conditions, concentrate on war preparedness, and intensify reform and innovation.
全軍要堅持以新時代中國特色社會主義思想爲指導,深入貫徹新時代黨的強軍思想,深入貫徹新時代軍事戰略方針,聚力備戰打仗,強化改革創新。

Focusing on the overall layout of the plan, the military should give prominence to key projects including urgent necessities for military preparedness, crucial support for combat systems, and coordinated projects for the reform of national defense and armed forces.
要圍繞規劃明確的總體布局,突出抓好軍事鬥爭准備急需、作戰體系關鍵支撐、國防和軍隊改革配套等重點項目。

The formulation of the 14th Five-Year Plan for military development should serve the demands of the national development, security and military strategies, and should take into account both the actual condition and long-term development needs.
軍隊建設“十四五”規劃論證編制工作,要適應國家發展戰略、安全戰略、軍事戰略要求,統籌當前建設實際和長遠發展需要。

 

外商投資法 foreign investment law

The foreign investment law, once adopted, will become a new and fundamental law for China's foreign investment, says the explanation delivered by Wang Chen, vice chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, to deputies attending an NPC plenary session.
全國人大常委會副委員長王晨在關于中華人民共和國外商投資法草案的說明指出,外商投資法通過後,將成爲我國外商投資領域新的基礎性法律。

關于外商投資的界定,草案做了如下界定,

外商投資(foreign investment)即外國的自然人、企業或者其他組織直接或者間接在中國境內進行的投資活動(investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by foreign natural persons, enterprises and other organizations),包括以下四類具體情形:

一是外國投資者單獨或者與其他投資者共同在中國境內設立外商投資企業(a foreign investor establishes a foreign-funded enterprise independently or together with any other investor);

二是外國投資者取得中國境內企業的股份、股權、財産份額或者其他類似權益(a foreign investor acquires shares, equities, property shares or any other similar rights and interests of an enterprise within the territory of China);

三是外國投資者單獨或者與其他投資者共同在中國境內投資新建項目(a foreign investor invests in any new construction project independently or together with any other investor);

四是法律、行政法規或者國務院規定的其他方式的投資(investments stipulated in laws, administrative regulations, or defined by the State Council)。

草案指出,

The foreign investment law is a comprehensive and fundamental set of legal standards for foreign investment activities in China under new circumstances, and shall play a leading role as an overarching law in this field.
外商投資法是新形勢下國家關于外商投資活動全面的、基本的法律規範,是外商投資領域起龍頭作用、具有統領性質的法律。

It is a full testament to China's determination and confidence in opening wider to the outside world and promoting foreign investment in the new era.
制定外商投資法,就是要在新的曆史條件下通過國家立法表明將改革開放進行到底的決心和意志,展現新時代中國積極的對外開放姿態。

草案分爲6章,包括總則、投資促進、投資保護、投資管理、法律責任、附則,共41條,對新的外商投資法律制度作出了基本的、明確的規定。

以下是部分要點摘錄:

The state shall guarantee that foreign-invested enterprises are able to participate in standard-setting work on an equal footing in accordance with law, and mandatory state standards shall apply equally to them, according to the document.
國家保障外商投資企業依法平等參與標准制定工作,國家制定的強制性標准平等適用于外商投資企業。

The state shall guarantee that foreign-invested enterprises can take part in government procurement activities through fair competition in accordance with law, and government procurement shall afford, in accordance with law, equal treatment to products of foreign-invested enterprises produced in China, it says.
國家保障外商投資企業依法通過公平競爭參與政府采購活動。政府采購依法對外商投資企業在中國境內生産的産品平等對待。

The conditions for technological cooperation in an investment project shall be negotiated in a fair and equal manner and agreed upon by all parties to the investment, and government bodies and their employees shall be prohibited from using administrative measures to force technology transfer.
外商投資過程中技術合作的條件由投資各方遵循公平原則平等協商確定,行政機關及其工作人員不得利用行政手段強制轉讓技術。

Sectors not on the entry negative list for foreign investment will be managed in accordance with the principle of equal treatment for domestic and foreign capital.
外商投資准入負面清單以外的領域,按照內外資一致的原則實施管理。

Competent authorities shall review foreign investors' license applications with the same conditions and procedures as those for domestic investors, unless otherwise stipulated in other laws or administrative regulations, according to the document. 
有關主管部門應當按照與內資一致的條件和程序,審核外國投資者的許可申請,法律、行政法規另有規定的除外。

The draft also makes it clear that the state shall manage foreign investment according to the system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list.
國家對外商投資實行准入前國民待遇加負面清單管理制度。

【名詞解釋】

准入前國民待遇(pre-establishment national treatment),是指在投資准入階段給予外國投資者及其投資不低于本國投資者及其投資的待遇。

負面清單(negative list),是指國家規定在特定領域對外商投資實施的准入特別管理措施。

外商投資法草案審議通過並正式實施之後,《中華人民共和國中外合資經營企業法》、《中華人民共和國外資企業法》、《中華人民共和國中外合作經營企業法》將同時廢止。


現代化都市圈 modern metropolitan area

The National Development and Reform Commission recently issued guidelines on cultivating and developing modern metropolitan areas, with the aim of building mature modern metropolitan areas with international influence by 2035.
國家發改委近日發布《關于培育發展現代化都市圈的指導意見》,明確目標爲,到2035年,現代化都市圈格局更加成熟,形成若幹具有全球影響力的都市圈。

 

城市群(city cluster)是新型城鎮化主體形態(a main part of the new type of urbanization),是支撐全國經濟增長、促進區域協調發展、參與國際競爭合作的重要平台(the important platform for supporting national economic growth, promoting regional coordinated development and participating in international competition and cooperation)。

都市圈(metropolitan area)是城市群內部以超大特大城市或輻射帶動功能強的大城市爲中心、以1小時通勤圈爲基本範圍的城鎮化空間形態(the urban spatial form comprising a one-hour commuting circle centered on a megacity within a city cluster)。

《意見》認爲,都市圈既能優化人口和經濟格局(optimize population and economic landscape),又有利于激活有效投資和潛在消費需求(boost effective investment and potential consumption demand),增強內生動力。

《意見》明確,在有條件地區編制都市圈軌道交通規劃(rail transportation plan in metropolitan areas),推動幹線鐵路、城際鐵路、市域(郊)鐵路、城市軌道交通“四網融合”(an integrated network of mainline railways, intercity railways, urban/suburban railways and urban railway transit projects)。

此外,《意見》還支持毗鄰城市(鎮)開行城際公交,加快推動近郊班線公交化,並要求加快推進都市圈內城市間公交一卡互通(one pass for all public transport services in metropolitan areas)、票制資費標准一致(unified ticket policies for public transport services)。

《意見》在促進人口要素向都市圈流動方面也提出了舉措,明確要放開放寬除個別超大城市外的城市落戶限制(relax restrictions on household registration in non-megacities)。

《意見》要求促進優質公共資源共享(encourage sharing of quality public resources),支持有條件的中小學和三級醫院推進集團化辦學辦醫,支持中心城市三級醫院異地設置分支機構。

禁售燃油車 ban the sale of gasoline-fueled automobiles

China's southern island province of Hainan will ban the sale of gasoline-fueled automobiles by 2030, in a bid to safeguard its environment and develop a modern economy, the provincial government said on Tuesday.
海南省政府3月5日宣布,該省將在2030年全面禁售燃油車,以保護環境,發展現代經濟。

 

According to the Hainan New Energy Vehicles Development Plan, Hainan will speed up the promotion of clean energy vehicles, and has set specific targets and outlined a road map, becoming the first province to unveil such a timeline.
《海南省清潔能源汽車發展規劃》提出,海南將加快推廣清潔能源汽車,並提出所有細分領域車輛清潔能源化目標和路線圖,是率先提出清潔能源汽車發展時間表的省份。

清潔能源汽車(clean energy vehicles),又稱爲新能源汽車(new energy vehicles,NEV),是以清潔燃料取代傳統汽油的環保型汽車的統稱,具有能耗低(low energy consumption)、汙染物排放少(low pollutant emission)等特點。新能源汽車包括純電動汽車(blade electric vehicles ,簡稱BEV),混合動力汽車(hybrid electric vehicles,簡稱HEV),氫發動機汽車(hydrogen-powered vehicles),以及燃料電池電動汽車(fuel-cell electric vehicles)等類型。

海南省爲全域推廣應用清潔能源汽車的可行性提出了六個方面的具體措施:

一是建設高效、智能的能源加注基礎設施網絡。

力爭通過3-5年時間,建成覆蓋全省、滿足各類型清潔能源汽車應用基本需求的充電網絡(more electric charging networks will be built in the next three to five years to meet the needs of clean energy vehicles)。


二是推進增量和存量汽車雙向清潔能源化。

到2020年,包括政府公務用車和公交車在內的所有公共領域新增和置換車輛全部使用清潔能源(all vehicles added or replaced in the public service sector, including government vehicles and buses, will use clean energy)。

增加私家車清潔能源化比例(a greater proportion of newly licensed private passenger cars will be new energy vehicles),每年遞增10%,到2025年,清潔能源車比例達到80%。到2030年,全省禁售燃油車。


三是完善新能源汽車社會化的便利、經濟使用環境。

加快研究清潔能源物流車、出租車(含巡遊出租車和網約出租車)、公交車、班線車、旅遊車、貨運車等運營補貼政策(subsidy policy for clean energy logistic vehicles, taxis, buses, urban-rural passenger buses, tourist buses and freight vehicles),助推營運車輛清潔能源化。


四是構建清潔能源車輛爲載體的綠色、智慧交通體系(green intelligent transport system)。

鼓勵綠色出行(green commuting)促進清潔能源汽車應用,探索綠色出行減碳積分機制(point collection system for carbon emission reduction)。


五是推動清潔能源汽車全産業鏈高質量發展。

在汽車行業外商投資准入(foreign investment accessibility)、新建項目審批(new project approval)、兼並重組(merger and reorganization)、金融貿易(finance and trade)、商業模式(business model)等領域,實行更大力度的全面深化改革和對外開放。


六是建成結構多元、智慧創新的清潔能源供應體系。

推動清潔能源示範省建設,創新打造清潔能源汽車、綠色交通和智慧能源聯動範例(example of linking clean energy vehicles, green transport and intelligent energy in a network),實現能源供應全生命周期清潔化。


不動産登記 immovable property registration

China will simplify the process of and reduce the time required for immovable property registration to better serve individuals and businesses, according to a circular issued by the State Council.
通知指出,我國將簡化不動産登記流程,壓縮辦理時間,以更好地爲企業和群衆服務。

 

【名詞解釋】

不動産(immovable property)是一個法律上的名詞,其實即是物業(real estate),它包括土地及其上之房屋等不可移動、可以有固定地址的建築物。

與之相對的動産(movables)指所有可移動之物(an article capable of being moved without injury),有形或無形,現有的或未來獲取得的,均可,包括設備(devices)、存貨(inventory)、農産品(agricultural produce)、不動産附著物(an article of personal property not attached to land)、物權憑證(document of title)等。

通知提出,2019年底前,流程精簡優化到位,全國所有市縣一般登記(general registration)、抵押登記(mortgage registration)業務辦理時間力爭分別壓縮至10個、5個工作日以內;2020年底前,力爭全部壓縮至5個工作日以內。

通知提出了三項主要任務:

一是推動信息共享集成。建立部門間信息共享集成機制(establish a mechanism for information sharing among governmental departments),打破“信息孤島(information silos)”。

推行“互聯網+不動産登記(Internet Plus Immovable Property Registration)”,建立不動産“網上(掌上)登記中心”,構建“外網申請、內網審核”模式,實現服務企業和群衆零距離。

二是推動流程集成。通過信息化手段整合集成業務流程(process integration),在政務服務大廳或不動産登記大廳設立綜合受理窗口,統一受理各相關辦理事項,實現信息化技術支撐的“一窗受理、並行辦理(single-window inter-agency services)”。

三是推動人員集成。不能馬上實現信息共享集成和流程集成的,可通過集中辦公(service integration)實現便民快捷。


基層減負 reduce burdens on community-level officials

The Communist Party of China Central Committee is requiring that more efforts be made to solve problems arising from the practice of formalities for formalities' sake to reduce burdens on community-level officials.
中共中央對解決形式主義突出問題爲基層減負作出進一步部署。

【知識點】

這裏的“基層”除了用community-level以外,也可以用grassroots-level表示。有些英文表達中使用primary-level來表示“基層”,不是很准確。Primary指“基層”時特指醫療衛生領域,僅用于primary care的語境(如primary care provider),不能擴大到任何行業的基層工作者,也就不能用來指“基層幹部”。

針對目前文山會海反彈回潮的問題,《通知》在這方面定了一些硬杠杠。

一是層層大幅度精簡文件和會議(the number of official documents and meetings should be drastically cut down by authorities of various levels);

二是明確中央印發的政策性文件原則上不超過10頁(policy documents issued by the central government should be no more than 10 pages),地方和部門也要按此從嚴掌握;

三是提出地方各級、基層單位貫徹落實中央和上級文件,可結合實際制定務實管用的舉措(practical measures should be taken to carry out the central leadership's instructions),除有明確規定外,不再制定貫徹落實意見和實施細則;

四是強調少開會、開短會(the number and length of meetings should be cut reduced),開管用的會,對防止層層開會作出規定。

針對有的地方和部門搞“責任甩鍋”,把問責作爲推卸責任的“擋箭牌”,《通知》要求嚴格控制“一票否決”事項(proceedings under the veto clause should be limited),不能動辄簽“責任狀”。

《通知》還要求對涉及城市評選評比表彰的各類創建活動(role model selecting campaigns)進行集中清理,優化改進各種督查檢查考核和調研活動,不幹擾基層正常工作。


罪錯未成年人 juvenile delinquencies

中國最高人民檢察院副檢察長童建明12日在北京表示,對罪錯未成年人要實行教育、感化、挽救方針,對他們“嚴管又厚愛,寬容不縱容”。

China will continue to strengthen its juvenile justice system, classify juvenile delinquencies on different levels and form a joint force with society to better protect the underage and prevent juvenile crimes, said Tong Jianming, deputy procurator-general, on Tuesday.
最高人民檢察院副檢察長童建明12日表示,最高檢將繼續加強對未成年人司法規律的探索,推動建立罪錯未成年人分級處遇、臨界預防等制度。要動員社會各方面力量,形成保護未成年人的合力。

今年2月,最高檢就表示正在探索建立罪錯未成年人分級處分制度。

Chinese prosecutors will clarify offense levels in crimes committed by juveniles to properly align punishments with the severity of the criminal acts, the nation's top prosecuting authority said on Tuesday.
最高人民檢察院2月12日表示,將明確罪錯未成年人處分分級,使懲罰措施與犯罪行爲的嚴重程度相匹配。

The work plan of the Supreme People's Procuratorate for 2018-22, which it posted on its website, also vowed to take innovative steps to prevent such crimes.
最高人民檢察院在其網站上發布的《2018-2022年檢察改革工作規劃》也承諾要采取創新舉措防止此類犯罪。

The plan said the levels of offenses by juveniles will be classified, and offenders will be punished in line with the prescribed levels.
規劃稱,未成年人的犯罪程度將被分類,違法者將按照規定的等級受到相應懲罰。

童建明表示,中國有3億多未成年人,加強對未成年人的司法保護工作,關乎億萬家庭幸福。過去一年,檢察機關把未成年人司法保護工作擺到了更加突出位置(have made juvenile protection a priority)。

In October, the Supreme People's Procuratorate issued a proposal to the Ministry of Education, suggesting the ministry reinforce the management of school safety and formulate more concrete measures to prevent sexual assault against students.
去年10月,最高檢向教育部發出了一份檢察建議,建議教育部加強對學校安全的管理,加強預防性侵兒童和中小學生的工作。

他說,罪錯未成年人是社會的危害者,同時也是不良環境的受害者。

"For their judicial protection, we should focus on educating them first with punishment as a supporting approach," he said, adding that they should be tolerated but not spoilt, strictly disciplined but treated with deep love.
對未成年人的司法保護,中國秉持的是“教育爲主、懲罰爲輔”原則,對他們“嚴管又厚愛,寬容不縱容”。

【詞彙講解】

英語中關于“青少年犯罪”有一個固定的說法juvenile delinquency/juvenile offending,juvenile指“未成年、青少年”,也可以形容某人“孩子氣的、幼稚的”。Delinquency這個詞指“違法行爲”,尤指青少年的違法行爲,實施違法行爲的青少年就可以稱爲delinquent。


誇誇群 praising groups

Kuakuaqun, or praising groups, on WeChat, where members shower you with over-the-top compliments and positive messages are gaining popularity among college students in China.
“誇誇群”在中國大學生當中日漸風靡,在這種群裏,所有成員都會對你送上各種誇張的贊美和鼓勵。

 

【詞彙辨析】

Praise和compliment都有“贊揚、表揚”的意思,經常可以互相替換使用,在具體用法上稍有區別。Praise可以用于對某人的成就、行爲、性格等方面表示的贊許,比如:Good job at your competition就屬于praise。Compliment在誇獎時多側重某個具體方面,比如:Your hair looks nice today就是一句compliment,有時我們也翻譯爲“恭維”。

Some college students in praising groups said that the fad’s latest incarnation is about more than just vanity — it’s also an outlet for users to practice kindness and support each other.
有些高校“誇誇群”的學生表示,這個風潮的興起並不只是表現浮誇,更是群成員表達善意,相互支持的舉動。

對于“誇誇群”風靡高校的現象,有社會學專家表示,學生求誇的心態,表明生活中缺少激勵,“年輕一代想通過這種方式,疏解個人情緒,包括壓力或其他情緒。”

Chen Kan, an associate professor in Fudan University’s psychology department, said that the praising chat groups have gone viral because they “meet a lot of psychological needs” for students seeking company, self-confidence, or flattery.
複旦大學心理學系副教授陳侃表示,“誇誇群”之所以會風靡是因爲其“滿足了學生們尋求陪伴、自信或者恭維的心理需求”。

“誇誇群”除了在高校火熱以外,還有電商平台商家推出了“誇人服務”。

Users can purchase memberships to such groups on e-commerce platforms like Taobao for anywhere from 0.6 yuan to 188 yuan. Once admitted, members can receive flattering comments from each other and even request to be complimented on specific things.
用戶可以在淘寶等電商平台上購買“誇誇群”會員服務,價格從0.6元到188元不等。入群之後,成員們就會收到各種贊美之詞,還可以指定某件事或某個方面被誇。

雖說,誇獎的話每個人都愛聽,但是聽多了也可能會起到反作用。

Chen also warned that anyone giving or receiving praise in such groups should be cautious. “The biggest risk is the constant emphasis on the ‘false self,’ [which] makes it harder to see the ‘true self,’” she said.
陳侃提醒說,在“誇誇群”裏不管誇人還是被誇都應該當心。“最大的危險就是,不斷強調‘虛假的自我’可能會讓人更加難以看清‘真實的自己’。”

歐洲三國之行 trip to three European countries

President Xi Jinping arrived in Beijing on Wednesday after wrapping up his state visits to Italy, Monaco and France. It was his first overseas trip this year. During the six-day visit, Xi traveled to five cities and attended more than 40 events.
27日,在結束對意大利、摩納哥、法國的國事訪問後,國家主席習近平回到北京。此次歐洲之行是習近平主席2019年首次出訪,他在6天時間裏到訪5座城市,密集出席了40余場活動。

國家主席習近平3月21日至26日應邀對意大利、摩納哥、法國進行國事訪問(state visit)。行程結束之際,國務委員兼外交部長王毅向記者介紹此訪情況。王毅說,習近平主席此訪致力于深化夥伴合作(deepen partnership for cooperation),致力于完善全球治理(improve global governance),致力于捍衛多邊主義(uphold multilateralism),體現了中國作爲負責任大國的境界和擔當(China's sense of responsibility as a major country),受到國內外輿論高度評價。

王毅說,習近平主席走到哪裏,"一帶一路"的東風就吹向哪裏,務實合作的果實就收獲在哪裏(wherever President Xi went, he took the Belt and Road and produced a harvest of practical cooperation there)。此訪歐洲,習近平主席來到了古絲綢之路的另一端(the trip took Xi to the other end of the ancient Silk Road),用"一帶一路"接續新時代的亞歐大陸互聯互通(boost Eurasian interconnectivity through joint building of the Belt and Road)。

王毅表示,意大利政府作出參與共建"一帶一路"的戰略決定,體現出求真務實和遠見卓識(the Italian government's strategic decision to join the Belt and Road is pragmatic and visionary)。中意簽署共建"一帶一路"合作諒解備忘錄(sign a memorandum of understanding on jointly building the Belt and Road),爲亞歐互聯互通建設、爲拓展"一帶一路"全球合作增添新的動力。

王毅表示,習近平訪問期間,中法簽署第三方市場合作第三輪示範項目清單(sign agreements on the third round of the BRI-related demonstration projects in third-party markets),並啓動了第三方市場合作基金(kick off a third-party market fund),合力打造兩國"一帶一路"合作支點。中法決定在傳統戰略性合作領域推進現有大項目合作(push the building of major projects in traditional areas),在科技創新、農業、金融等新興領域(new areas including scientific innovation, agriculture and finance)加快戰略對接和全方位合作,進一步深化兩國産業利益融合。

王毅表示,中、法、德及歐盟領導人在巴黎會晤時也就共建"一帶一路"進行了富有建設性的討論(constructive discussions on jointly building the Belt and Road),各方都顯示了積極姿態(all the parties responded positively)。馬克龍總統在全球治理論壇閉幕式上表示,中方提出的"一帶一路"倡議具有重大意義,將爲世界和平與發展發揮重要作用(the BRI is of great significance and will play an important role in promoting global peace and development),歐盟願將歐亞互聯互通戰略與"一帶一路"深度對接,開展創新性合作。

王毅說,中摩經貿合作具有務實、高效、靈活的特點。習近平主席在與阿爾貝二世親王會談中,認真探討了摩方結合自身區位和産業優勢,積極參與到共建"一帶一路"國際合作中來(actively participate in the joint development of the Belt and Road),同中方開展包括開拓第三方市場在內的多種形式合作。


共享單車押金新規 new rules on sharing bikes deposits

The regulation, if enacted, would require that companies charge users a deposit based on their service capability. The total prepaid funds in a user's account on a bike-sharing platform, for example, would be capped at 100 yuan ($15), while the money for other new transportation business would be less than 8,000 yuan.
新規要求,運營企業收取的用戶預付資金總規模應當與其服務能力相匹配,互聯網租賃自行車單個用戶賬號內的預付資金額度不得超過100元;其他交通運輸新業態單個用戶賬號內的預付資金額度不得超過8000元。

 

The draft regulation makes it clear that users' prepaid funds can only be used for a company's main business, and may not be used for investment-such as real estate, equity, securities and bonds-or for debt service.
新規還明確提出,運營企業只能將用戶預付資金用于其主營業務,不得用于不動産、股權、證券、債券等投資及其他借貸用途等。

【名詞解釋】

這裏提到的“共享出行”包括網絡預約出租汽車(online taxi-hailing)、汽車分時租賃(car rental)和互聯網租賃自行車(online bike rental/bike sharing)等。

共享出行其實是分享經濟(sharing economy)的一種。分享經濟(sharing economy或shared economy)指能夠讓商品、服務、數據以及才能等有共享渠道的經濟社會體系(economic and social systems that enable shared access to goods, services, data and talent)。這些體系形式各異,但都是運用信息技術讓個人、公司、非盈利機構以及政府掌握大量信息以讓他們可以分配、共享及再利用過剩的商品和服務(empower individuals, corporations, non-profits and government with information that enables distribution, sharing and reuse of excess capacity in goods and services)。

新規要求,運營企業原則上不收取用戶押金,確有必要收取的,應當基于協議(any deposits should be based on agreements),提供運營企業專用存款賬戶(special deposit account)和用戶個人銀行結算賬戶(personal settlement account)兩種資金存管方式,供用戶選擇。用戶押金歸用戶所有,運營企業不得挪用(companies may not misappropriate deposit funds)。

此外,新規還明確提出,運營企業應當建立用戶預付資金備付金制度(provisions system for user deposits),備付金不得低于用戶預付資金余額的40%。

根據新規,用戶申請退還押金(apply for deposit refund)時,存管銀行和其他支付服務機構核對相關信息後,應當于當日(至遲次日)基于原路退還原則退還用戶。用戶原賬戶發生變化的,運營企業需提供用戶身份信息、押金支付信息和退款賬戶信息,存管銀行和其他支付服務機構核對認定後再行退還(refund customers' deposits after verifying the user's information)。


2020年東京奧運會火炬 Tokyo 2020 Olympic Torch

3月20日,東京奧組委揭曉了2020年東京奧運會火炬樣式及奧運火炬大使,並披露奧運火炬在日本國內傳遞計劃。

 

The torch to be used for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Torch Relay has been designed with a cherry blossom motif – a flower close to the hearts of all Japanese people.
2020年東京奧運會火炬傳遞的火炬樣式采用日本人民都鍾愛的櫻花形狀。

火炬整體長度爲71厘米,總重量約1.2公斤。火炬主要材質爲鋁材,采用了使用在新幹線制造中的鋁擠壓工藝(the aluminium extrusion manufacturing technology used in the production of the shinkansen bullet train)。

制造火炬的鋁材有30%來源于回收利用的鋁材(recycled aluminium),此前用于建造2011年日本東部大地震後的預制房屋(originally used in the construction of prefabricated housing units)。

The Tokyo 2020 Olympic torch has been designed in the form of the Olympic flame. Five separate flames emerge from flower petals and come together as one at the centre of the torch to give off a more brilliant light – the 'Path of Hope'.
2020年東京奧運火炬設計成奧運之火的形式,5個花瓣中分別燃起5個火種,然後聚集在火炬中心形成更明亮的火光,即“希望之路”。

2020年東京奧運會火炬傳遞的主題正是 "Hope Lights Our Way" (希望照亮我們的道路)。

To coincide with the cherry blossom season in Japan, in March 2020 the Tokyo 2020 Olympic torch relay will begin and will be held over 121 days.
2020年東京奧運會火炬傳遞將于2020年3月開始,正好是日本的櫻花季。火炬傳遞將曆時121天。

Tokyo 2020 also announced the Olympic Torch Relay Ambassadors, who will promote the Relay to people all over the world. The list of Ambassadors includes three-time judo Olympic gold medallist Tadahiro Nomura, three-time Paralympian Aki Taguchi, actress Satomi Ishihara and comedy duo Sandwich Man.
同時,東京奧組委也宣布了奧運火炬傳遞大使,包括三屆奧運會柔道冠軍野村忠宏,三屆殘奧會選手田口亞希,演員石原裏美以及喜劇二人組“三明治人”。這些大使將承擔火炬傳遞在全球範圍內的宣傳工作。


化工廠爆炸 explosion at chemical plant

2019年3月21日14:48左右,江蘇省鹽城市響水縣陳家港鎮生態化工園區內的江蘇天嘉宜化工有限公司發生爆炸。

正赴國外訪問途中的中共中央總書記、國家主席、中央軍委主席習近平對江蘇響水天嘉宜化工有限公司“3·21”爆炸事故作出重要指示:

Xi said all-out efforts must be made to search those trapped, and the injured must be timely treated and relief work must be well done to maintain social stability. Meanwhile, environment monitoring and early warning should be strengthened to prevent environmental pollution as well as secondary disasters.
要求全力搶險救援,搜救被困人員,及時救治傷員,做好善後工作,切實維護社會穩定。要加強監測預警,防控發生環境汙染,嚴防發生次生災害。

The Tianjiayi chemical plant, which was established in 2007, is a producer of over 30 organic chemical compounds, including anisole, m-Phenylenediamine and para-Phenylenediamine, many of which are flammable and toxic, according to its website.
官網信息顯示,天嘉宜成立于2007年,主要生産苯甲醚、間苯二胺以及對間苯二胺等30多種有機化合物,其中很多化合物爲易燃有毒産品。

According to the city's environmental protection authority, the explosion had a negative influence on the air quality in the chemical park and its surrounding areas within a 500-meter radius. 
當地環保部門表示,爆炸會對化工廠及周邊500米範圍地區的空氣質量産生不良影響。

No residents are living in the chemical park, while all people nearby have been evacuated. And there are no drinking water sources downstream of the accident site, it added.
環保部門同時表示,化工廠內沒有人居住,周邊居民也已被撤離。爆發事故地點下遊也沒有飲用水源。

The company had been ordered by State Administration of Work Safety Ministry, the predecessor of Ministry of Emergency Management, to rectify its 13 hidden safety hazards in 2018, including leaking valve on its storage tank.
2018年,原國家安監總局,應急管理部前身,曾要求天嘉宜整改儲存罐閥門泄漏等13條安全隱患。

在國家安全監督總局辦公廳的官網上,涉事的企業有13項安全隱患被通報,其中有4項直接涉及到苯;尤其有一條是,苯、甲醇裝卸現場無防泄漏應急處置措施,這可能是造成可燃物泄漏並爆炸的主要原因之一。

And earlier in 2016, the company was fined by the county's ecological and environmental protection bureau for violating the solid waste management and environmental impact assessment regulations. It was punished again a year later for disobeying air pollution and solid waste management regulations in 2017, according to Qichacha, a data bank that tracks business registration information in China.
企業登記信息數據庫企查查信息顯示,早在2016年,天嘉宜就曾因爲違法固體廢物管理及環境影響測評規定被前國家環保總局罰款。2017年,該公司又因爲違法空氣汙染及固體廢物管理規定被處罰。

蘋果流媒體産品 streaming service

蘋果公司在發布會上推出了蘋果電視Apple TV+、蘋果新聞Apple News+以及蘋果信用卡等一系列服務業務。

 

流媒體視頻服務Apple TV+:可在競爭對手設備下載

The Apple TV+ app was unveiled by Steven Spielberg and will launch in the autumn. The platform will include shows from existing services like Hulu and HBO.
蘋果電視Apple TV+由史蒂文·斯皮爾伯格介紹,將于今年秋季正式發布。該平台可以收看Hulu、HBO等現有流媒體平台的節目。

The app will be made available on rival devices for the first time, coming to Samsung, LG, Sony and Vizio smart TVs as well as Amazon's Firestick and Roku.
同時,蘋果還將首次與三星、LG、索尼、Vizio等電視機廠商以及電視機頂盒提供商Roku和亞馬遜Firestick合作,這些終端也將能夠下載Apple TV+的應用。


蘋果信用卡:沒年費、有返現

The Apple Card credit card will launch in the US this summer.
蘋果信用卡將于今年夏季在美國推出。

There will be both an iPhone and physical version of the card, with a cashback incentive on every purchase.
該信用卡將有手機版和實體版,每一筆消費都會有返現獎勵。

The credit card will have no late fees, annual fees or international fees, said Apple Pay VP Jennifer Bailey.
蘋果支付業務副總裁珍妮弗·貝利表示,蘋果信用卡沒有滯納金、年費以及國際交易費。

It has been created with the help of Goldman Sachs and MasterCard.
蘋果信用卡由高盛銀行和萬事達公司協助推出。


蘋果新聞Apple News+:每月9.99美元縱覽300多種報刊雜志

The firm also revealed a news service, Apple News+, which will include more than 300 magazine titles including Marie Claire, Vogue, New Yorker, Esquire, National Geographic and Rolling Stone.
蘋果公司還推出了新聞服務Apple News+,裏面包含《嘉人》、《時尚》、《紐約客》、《時尚先生》、《國家地理》、《滾石》等300多種雜志。

The LA Times and the Wall Street Journal will also be part of the platform, the firm said.
該平台還包括《洛杉矶時報》和《華爾街日報》等報紙內容。

Apple News+ will cost $9.99 per month and is available immediately in the US and Canada. It will come to Europe later in the year.
新聞服務Apple News+將立即在美國和加拿大推出,月訂閱費9.99美元,今年下半年將在歐洲推出。

Unlike TV+, the news platform will only be available on Apple devices.
不過,與蘋果電視Apple TV+不同的是,Apple News+只能在蘋果設備上下載使用。


遊戲服務Apple Arcade:可離線玩100多個獨家遊戲

Apple Arcade will offer 100 games not available elsewhere.
A new games platform, Apple Arcade, will offer over 100 exclusive games from the app store which will all be playable offline.
新的遊戲平台Apple Arcade將提供100多個在蘋果設備上獨家發行的遊戲,支持離線玩遊戲。

It will be rolled out across 150 countries in the autumn but no subscription prices were given.
該遊戲平台將于今年秋季在150個國家推出,不過訂閱價格尚未公布。

 

全國通辦 nationwide access

"Taking effect on April 1, residents in the Chinese mainland can apply for passports and travel permits to and from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan at every exit and entry management department across the country. Tourist group visas for all three places can be obtained from self-service machines." Yin Chengji, Vice Director of the National Immigration Administration said at the press conference Tuesday.
3月26日,國家移民管理局副局長尹成基在新聞發布會上表示,自4月1日起,中華人民共和國普通護照、往來港澳通行證、往來台灣通行證等出入境證件實行“全國通辦”,即內地居民可在全國任一出入境管理窗口申請辦理上述出入境證件。異地申辦赴港澳台團隊旅遊簽注可在自助簽注機上辦理。

出入境證件實行“全國通辦”後,可實現三個“都能辦”:

全國各地都能辦,即內地居民可在全國任一出入境管理窗口(every exit and entry management department across the country)申辦出入境證件;

內地居民都能辦,即不受戶籍地、居住地等條件限制(no restrictions on household registration or residence),內地居民均可在異地申辦出入境證件;

出國出境證件都能辦(applicable to both passports and travel permits),即中華人民共和國普通護照、往來港澳通行證、往來台灣通行證等都可在異地申辦。

據悉,國家移民管理局政務服務平台將于4月1日起正式上線啓用。國家移民管理局政務服務平台綜合運用網站、移民局App、第三方平台多種網上服務方式,目前主要有六大功能:往來港澳台旅遊簽注申辦(apply for travel permits to and from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan)、證件辦理進度查詢(application status enquiry)、證件預約申請(passport and travel permit appointment)、證件信息查詢(passport and travel permits details)、出入境記錄查詢(records of exit and entry)、辦事指引查詢(instructions)。

用戶可通過平台網站、移民局App、微信和支付寶端小程序等方式注冊使用。國家移民管理局政務服務平台的網址是:https://s.nia.gov.cn。


博鳌亞洲論壇年會 the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference

3月26日-29日,博鳌亞洲論壇2019年年會(the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2019)在中國海南博鳌舉行,主題是“共同命運 共同行動 共同發展(Shared Future, Concerted Action, Common Development)”。

 

The BFA AC2019 will feature approximately 50 official sessions, including the opening plenum, themed sessions, CEO dialogues, and roundtable meetings. They are formatted under five modules—open world economy; multilateralism, regional cooperation and global governance; innovation-driven development; high-quality development; and critical issues.
博鳌亞洲論壇2019年年會擬設置50場左右的正式討論,包括開幕大會、分論壇、CEO對話、圓桌會議等。具體議題擬設五大版塊:包括開放型世界經濟,多邊主義、區域合作、全球治理,創新驅動,高質量發展,熱點前沿。

博鳌秘書長李保東表示,

Globalization and free trade are inevitable trends of economic development; that multilateralism, dialogue and cooperation are the shared aspiration of most countries; and that openness and innovation are natural choices to sustain economic progress and globalization. 
全球化和自由貿易是經濟發展的客觀趨勢,多邊主義、對話合作是大多數國家的願望,開放、創新是世界經濟和全球化持續前行的不二選擇。

The BFA AC2019 will provide an open, inclusive dialogue platform for stakeholders and send a clear message to build consensus regarding global governance.
本屆年會要爲參會各方搭建開放包容的討論平台,也要爲凝聚全球治理共識向世界傳遞明確的信息。

在開放型世界經濟版塊,年會將突出“開放”這一關鍵詞,下設世界經濟展望(global economic outlook)、服務業開放(opening of the service sector)、WTO改革(WTO reform)、跨境電商(cross-border e-commerce)、自貿區與自由港(free trade zone versus free port)等議題;

在多邊主義、區域合作與全球治理版塊,年會將突出“多邊合作”這一關鍵詞,下設全球治理(global governance)、“一帶一路”(the Belt and Road initiative)、島嶼經濟(island economy)、亞洲區域合作組織對話(Asian regional organizations dialogues)等議題;

在創新驅動版塊,年會將突出“科技創新”這一關鍵詞,下設可持續發展(sustainable development)、5G與物聯網(5G and the Internet of Things)、“AI+”時代(AI plus)、大數據(big data)、分享經濟(shared economy)、海洋經濟(blue economy)等議題。

在高質量發展版塊,年會將突出“質量發展”這一關鍵詞,下設城鄉發展(rural and urban development)、制造業(manufacturing)、金融(finance)、消費(consumption)、跨境投資(cross-border investment)、房市及證券市場(housing and securities markets)、國企民企對話(the relationship between SOEs and the private sector)、中小企業(SMEs)、能源資源(energy)等議題。

在熱點前沿版塊,年會將涵蓋政治(politics)、外交(diplomacy)、安全(security)、教育(education)、文化(culture)、健康(health)、民生(livelihood)等議題,包括南海分論壇、健康分論壇、大學校長對話、青年領袖圓桌、女性圓桌、媒體領袖圓桌等。


陪餐 dine with students

日前,教育部等三部委共同發布《學校食品安全與營養健康管理規定》("Regulations on the Administration of Food Safety and Nutritional Health in Schools",以下簡稱《規定》),中小學、幼兒園應當建立集中用餐陪餐制度。該規定從4月1日開始執行。

School officials, from senior executives to headmasters, will be required to dine with students in canteens in China's middle schools, primary schools and kindergartens, according to a notice jointly issued Tuesday by the Education Ministry, State Administration for Market Regulation, and National Health Commission.
3月11日,教育部、國家市場監管總局、國家衛健委共同發布《規定》,每餐均應當有學校高管到校長等相關負責人與學生共同用餐。

 

《規定》指出:

實行學校食品安全校長(園長)負責制(accountability system),校長(園長)是第一責任人。

嚴格落實原材料采購(raw material procurement)、加工制作(processing)、食品留樣(keeping retention samples)、清洗消毒(cleaning and disinfection)等環節管理,建立大宗物資和主食入庫登記查驗制度。

引入社會經營的學校食堂應建立准入和退出機制(entry and exit mechanism),不能“以包代管”,嚴禁層層轉包(no subcontracting is allowed),嚴禁貼牌代包。

中小學、幼兒園應建立集中用餐陪餐制度,每餐均應有學校行政管理負責人陪餐(school officials are required to dine with students at every meal)。


青少年模式 teen mode

3月28日,國家網信辦指導組織“抖音”“快手”“火山小視頻”等短視頻平台試點上線青少年防沉迷系統。

 

On a daily basis, when users open these short-video apps for the first time, they will be greeted by a pop-up message asking if they’d like to activate “teen mode,” which sets restrictions on content, features, and view time.
用戶每日首次打開這些短視頻應用時,會收到彈窗信息,詢問是否要進入青少年模式,在該模式下,用戶看到的視頻內容、服務功能以及觀看時長都會受到限制。

系統還將試點通過地理位置判定(location data)、用戶行爲分析(behavioral analysis)等技術手段篩選甄別農村地區留守兒童(left-behind children)用戶,並自動切換到“青少年模式”(turn on teen mode automatically)。

目前,快手、火山小視頻、抖音等平台已經上線了“青少年防沉迷系統(anti-addiction system)”,用戶進入“青少年模式”後,將會有如下限制:

無法進行打賞(tipping)、充值(top up)、提現(cash out)、直播(livestreaming)等行爲;

每日累計使用時長不能超過40分鍾(no more than 40 minutes of view time each day),晚上10點至早上6點禁止使用,只有監護人輸入密碼才能開啓。

此外,在內容設定上,上述短視頻平台針對青少年用戶展現的多爲教育益智、科普、休閑等寓教于樂的內容。

國家網信辦表示,將在總結試點經驗、完善管理制度的基礎上,于今年6月在全國主要網絡短視頻平台全面推廣上線“青少年防沉迷系統”(expand the anti-addiction system to major video-streaming sites in China),並形成統一的行業規範。


(中國日報網英語點津 Helen)



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